Canada is made up of 10 provinces and three territories with Ottawa as the Canadian capital.

The provinces are from west to east: British Columbia (capital: Victoria), Alberta (Edmonton), Saskatchewan (Regina), Manitoba (Winnipeg), Ontario (Toronto), Quebec (Quebec City), New Brunswick (Fredericton), Nova Scotia (Halifax), Prince Edward Island (Charlottetown), and Newfoundland and Labrador (St. John’s). The three territories are:  Yukon (Whitehorse),Northwest Territories (Yellowknife), and Nunavut (Iqaluit).

The most populous province is Ontario followed by Quebec, British Columbia and Alberta. Ontario and Quebec account for over 85% of Canada’s population.

The largest centres in Canada by population are Toronto, Ontario; Montreal, Quebec; Vancouver, British Columbia; Calgary, Alberta; Edmonton, Alberta; and Ottawa-Gatineau, Ontario/Quebec.

The practice of Land Surveying in Canada is generally defined as:

  • the determination, establishment or recording by any means of the positions of points, natural features or features made by persons on, over or under the surface of the earth
  • the determination of the form of the earth
  • to determine, locate, define, describe, establish or re-establish boundaries
  • it includes the preparation of maps, plans, systems and documents and the giving of advice with respect to any of the matters above.